Cardiology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the study of the heart and the circulation in the state of health or disease.
Cardiology is a subspecialty of internal medicine and implies that the doctor received training in the diagnosis and treatment of acute or chronic diseases of the heart and is capable of identifying patients needing interventional or surgical treatment. The clinical cardiologist, receives training to offer special care to patients who are going or already has performed surgical procedures and/or Interventional. The Interventional Cardiology is the subspecialty of Cardiology dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment through catheters.
In contrast to the surgery that requires a wound and an open in the chest to get to the heart, in interventional procedures a catheter is inserted by an artery of the leg or arm. Catheter following the path of the artery access the heart and in this way the therapeutic procedure is done. Since this type of procedures does not imply open heart are considered minimally invasive surgery. Through catheters interventional procedures are performed for treatment of the disease ateroesclerosa of the coronary arteries, disease of the heart valves, congenital heart diseases, and diseases of the peripheral arteries (Aorta, carotid, lower extremity, renal arteries.)
In the subspecialty of interventional cardiology, cardiologist receives special training in the use of catheters, contrast and fluoroscopy. And in particular training in techniques of balloon angioplasty and stenting of coronary arteries which is the most frequently performed procedure. As part of the training, interventional cardiologists are trained in procedures of atherectomy, valvuloplasty with balloon angioplasty of the peripheral arteries.